QSS of 6th standard NCERT

Start music   Aug 28 2016 || 3:58 PM

Components of food

  • The major nutrients in our food are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals. In addition, food also contains dietary fibres and water.
  • Carbohydrates and fats mainly provide energy to our body.
  • Proteins and minerals are needed for the growth and the maintenance of our body.
  • Vitamins help in protecting our body against diseases.
  • Balanced diet provides all the nutrients that our body needs, in right quantities, along with adequate amount of roughage and water.
  • Deficiency of one or more nutrients in our food for a long time may cause certain diseases or disorders.
  • Iodine is used to test the presence of Carbohydrates in food
  • Copper sulphate is used to test the presence of proteins.

 

Vitamin/Mineral

Defiency/Disorder

Symptoms

Vitamin A

Loss of vision

Poor vision

Vitamin B1

Beri Beri

Weak muscles

Vitamin C

Scurvy

Bleeding gums

Vitamin D

Rickets

Bones becomes soft and bent

CALCIUM

Bone and teeth decay

Weak bones and teeth decay

IODINE

Goitre

Glands in the neck appear swollen

IRON

Anaemia

weakness

 

 

Fibre to Fabric

  • Fibres of some fabrics such as cotton, jute, silk and wool are obtained from plants and animals. These are called natural fibres.
  • Cotton and jute are examples of fibres obtained from plants.
  • Wool and silk fibres are obtained from animals. Wool is obtained from the fleece of sheep or goat. It is also obtained from the hair of rabbits, yak and camels.
  • Silk fibre is drawn from the cocoon of silkworm.
  • Fibres which are not obtained from plant or animal sources. These are called synthetic fibres. Some examples of synthetic fibres are polyester, nylon and acrylic.
  • The process of separating cotton bolls from the seeds by combing is called ginning of cotton.
  • The process of making yarn from fibres is called spinning.
  • a single yarn is used to make a piece of fabric is called knitting
  • Jute fibre is obtained from the stem of the jute plant
  • It is cultivated during the rainy season.
  • In India, jute is mainly grown in West Bengal, Bihar and Assam.
  • The jute plant is normally harvested when it is at flowering stage.

 

 

Separation of substances

  • Handpicking, winnowing, sieving, sedimentation, decantation and filtration are some of the methods of separating substances from their mixtures.
  • Husk and stones could be separated from grains by handpicking.
  • Husk is separated from heavier seeds of grain by winnowing.
  • Difference in the size of particles in a mixture is utilised to separate them by the process of sieving and filtration.
  • In a mixture of sand and water, the heavier sand particles settle down at the bottom and the water can be separated by decantation.
  • Filtration can be used to separate components of a mixture of an insoluble solid and a liquid.
  • Evaporation is the process in which a liquid gets converted into its vapour. Evaporation can be used to separate a solid dissolved in a liquid.
  • A saturated solution is one in which no more of that substance can be dissolved.
  • More of a substance can be dissolved in a solution by heating it.
  • Water dissolves different amount of soluble substances in it.

 

Getting to know plants

  • Plants are usually grouped into herbs, shrubs, trees, and climbers based on their height, stems and branches.
  • The stem bears leaves, flowers and fruits.
  • A leaf usually has a petiole and a lamina.
  • Petals, Sepals, Stamens, Pistil are the some of the parts of the plant
  • The pattern of veins on the leaf is called venation. It can be reticulate or parallel.
  • Leaves give out water vapour through the process of transpiration.
  • Green leaves make their food by the process of photosynthesis using carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight.
  • Roots absorb water and minerals from the soil and anchor the plant firmly in the soil.
  • Roots are mainly of two types: tap root and fibrous roots.
  • Plants having leaves with reticulate venation have tap roots while plants having leaves with parallel venation have fibrous roots.
  • The stem conducts water from roots to the leaves (and other parts) and food from leaves to other parts of the plant.
  • The parts of a flower are sepals, petals, stamens and pistil.
  • Climbers, Conduct, Creepers,Fibrous roots, Herbs, Lamina, Lateral roots, Midrib, Ovule,Photosynthesis,  are the key words in this chapter